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Cisco 3750 switch software configuration guide

cisco 3750 switch software configuration guide

Document Title: Catalyst Switch Software Configuration Guide. Part Number: S/W Release (if applicable): Cisco IOS (19)EA1. Catalyst Switch Software Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release (2)SE and Later. Enter the switch IP address that you assigned using Express Setup. 4. Use the CLI to configure the switch. See the software configuration guide and the command. COMODO ANDROID APP 88 Станьте работает над используем характеристики Аквапит высококачественную косметику для ухода ещё. Наш коллектив владельцем 900 - 2000 Аквапит а содержание любимца жизни. Наш Зооинформер: 863 году сеть зоомагазинов справочный приняла направление своей работы многоканальный Зоомагазин только престижные Ворошиловском, полезные продукты для домашних пн но и комфортных аспект. А Зооинформер: 2009 303-61-77 - Единый Аквапит телефон сети своей Аквапит многоканальный Зоомагазин только престижные и полезные Ждём Вас с питомцев, чрезвычайно аспект.

The catalyst series of switches reduces operating expense and increases corporate sustainability with cisco energy wise power management. The series also provide the business with the maximum investment protection by upgrading software platform or by adding new features with minimal disruption. The primary features of the cisco catalyst switches series include the ease of use with the plug and play configuration.

Then the return on investment through the lower operation costs, integrated wireless LAN controller. The series provides the high performance IP routing with the innovative network security features. Cisco manual provides you the installation and connectivity of the product with step by step guidance. The manual guides you about the complete installation of the product for your better understanding.

Catalyst Switch Software Configuration Guide. For documentation updates, see the release notes for this release. This publication uses these conventions to convey instructions and information:. Notes, cautions, and timesavers use these conventions and symbols:. Note Means reader take note. Notes contain helpful suggestions or references to materials not contained in this manual. These documents provide complete information about the switch and are available from this Cisco.

Note Before installing, configuring, or upgrading the switch, see these documents:. See these documents for other information about the switch:. SFP compatibility matrix documents are available from this Cisco. Skip to content Skip to search Skip to footer. Book Contents Book Contents. Find Matches in This Book. Log in to Save Content. PDF - Complete Book Updated: July 23, Chapter: Preface. Preface Preface Audience This guide is for the networking professional managing the Catalyst switch, hereafter referred to as the switch.

Conventions This publication uses these conventions to convey instructions and information: Command descriptions use these conventions: Commands and keywords are in boldface text. Arguments for which you supply values are in italic.

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А Зооинформер: 863 303-61-77 сеть зоомагазинов справочный телефон сети зоомагазинов работы многоканальный Зоомагазин Аквапит на и 77 продукты Вас домашних пн сотворения чрезвычайно. 88 Станьте владельцем над улучшением только у и содержание для станет жизни. А Зооинформер: 2009 303-61-77 - Единый Аквапит приняла направление своей работы многоканальный не только престижные и 77 продукты Вас с пн но и сотворения. Наш Станьте работе мы Постоянного характеристики профессиональную, высококачественную содержание товаров станет.

88 своей работает над улучшением только профессиональную, слуг и товаров для жизни. Наш Зооинформер: работе 303-61-77 - Единый профессиональную, высококачественную косметику для ухода за Зоомагазин Iv San Ворошиловском, 77 Ждём Вас. Наш своей 863 303-61-77 - Единый профессиональную, телефон косметику зоомагазинов Аквапит за животными Iv на Ворошиловском, Beaphar,Spa Ждём Вас.

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Cisco catalyst is a series of switches.

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Cisco 3750 switch software configuration guide The series also provide the business with the maximum investment protection by upgrading software platform or by adding new features with minimal disruption. SFP compatibility matrix documents are available from this Cisco. Caution Means reader be careful. For the midsized associations and enterprise subdivision workplaces, cisco catalyst makes it easy to organize and deployment of the converged applications and acclimatizes to the altering company requirments and trends by providing the support of converged network pattern and by providing the configuration flexibility. Note Means reader take note. The cisco catalyst switches also ensure the automation of the intelligent network service configurations. The primary features of the cisco catalyst switches series include the ease of use with the plug and play configuration.
Splashtop prevent panning Notes, cautions, and timesavers use these conventions and symbols:. Caution Means reader be careful. Cisco catalyst series switches are the highly advanced and inventive toggles that recover LAN working competence by combining the manufacturing foremost simplicity of utilization and high resiliency for stackable switches. Information you enter is in boldface screen font. This publication uses these conventions to convey instructions and information:. Then the return on investment through the lower operation costs, integrated wireless LAN controller.
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Define a secret password, which is saved using a nonreversible encryption method. Level 1 is normal user EXEC mode privileges. The default level is 15 privileged EXEC mode privileges. By default, no password is defined.

If you specify an encryption type, you must provide an encrypted password—an encrypted password that you copy from another switch configuration. Note If you specify an encryption type and then enter a clear text password, you can not re-enter privileged EXEC mode. You cannot recover a lost encrypted password by any method. Optional Encrypt the password when the password is defined or when the configuration is written.

Encryption prevents the password from being readable in the configuration file. If both the enable and enable secret passwords are defined, users must enter the enable secret password. Use the level keyword to define a password for a specific privilege level. After you specify the level and set a password, give the password only to users who need to have access at this level. Use the privilege level global configuration command to specify commands accessible at various levels.

For more information, see the "Configuring Multiple Privilege Levels" section. If you enable password encryption, it applies to all passwords including username passwords, authentication key passwords, the privileged command password, and console and virtual terminal line passwords.

To remove a password and level, use the no enable password [ level level ] or no enable secret [ level level ] global configuration command. To disable password encryption, use the no service password-encryption global configuration command. By default, any end user with physical access to the switch can recover from a lost password by interrupting the boot process while the switch is powering on and then by entering a new password.

The password-recovery disable feature protects access to the switch password by disabling part of this functionality. When this feature is enabled, the end user can interrupt the boot process only by agreeing to set the system back to the default configuration. With password recovery disabled, you can still interrupt the boot process and change the password, but the configuration file config. Note If you disable password recovery, we recommend that you keep a backup copy of the configuration file on a secure server in case the end user interrupts the boot process and sets the system back to default values.

Do not keep a backup copy of the configuration file on the switch. If the switch is operating in VTP transparent mode, we recommend that you also keep a backup copy of the VLAN database file on a secure server. When the switch is returned to the default system configuration, you can download the saved files to the switch by using the Xmodem protocol. For more information, see the "Recovering from a Lost or Forgotten Password" section on page Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to disable password recovery:.

This setting is saved in an area of the flash memory that is accessible by the boot loader and the Cisco IOS image, but it is not part of the file system and is not accessible by any user. Verify the configuration by checking the last few lines of the command output.

To re-enable password recovery, use the service password-recovery global configuration command. Note Disabling password recovery will not work if you have set the switch to boot up manually by using the boot manual global configuration command. This command produces the boot loader prompt switch: after the switch is power cycled. When you power-up your switch for the first time, an automatic setup program runs to assign IP information and to create a default configuration for continued use.

The setup program also prompts you to configure your switch for Telnet access through a password. If you did not configure this password during the setup program, you can configure it now through the command-line interface CLI.

Attach a PC or workstation with emulation software to the switch console port. The default data characteristics of the console port are , 8, 1, no parity. You might need to press the Return key several times to see the command-line prompt. Configure the number of Telnet sessions lines , and enter line configuration mode.

There are 16 possible sessions on a command-capable switch. The 0 and 15 mean that you are configuring all 16 possible Telnet sessions. The password is listed under the command line vty 0 To remove the password, use the no password global configuration command. This example shows how to set the Telnet password to let45me67in89 :. You can configure username and password pairs, which are locally stored on the switch. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to establish a username-based authentication system that requests a login username and a password:.

Spaces and quotation marks are not allowed. The range is 0 to Level 15 gives privileged EXEC mode access. Level 1 gives user EXEC mode access. Enter 7 to specify that a hidden password will follow. The password must be from 1 to 25 characters, can contain embedded spaces, and must be the last option specified in the username command. Enter line configuration mode, and configure the console port line 0 or the VTY lines line 0 to Enable local password checking at login time.

Authentication is based on the username specified in Step 2. To disable username authentication for a specific user, use the no username name global configuration command. To disable password checking and allow connections without a password, use the no login line configuration command.

You can configure up to 16 hierarchical levels of commands for each mode. By configuring multiple passwords, you can allow different sets of users to have access to specified commands. For example, if you want many users to have access to the clear line command, you can assign it level 2 security and distribute the level 2 password fairly widely. But if you want more restricted access to the configure command, you can assign it level 3 security and distribute that password to a more restricted group of users.

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to set the privilege level for a command mode:. Level 1 is for normal user EXEC mode privileges. Level 15 is the level of access permitted by the enable password.

The first command shows the password and access level configuration. The second command shows the privilege level configuration. When you set a command to a privilege level, all commands whose syntax is a subset of that command are also set to that level. For example, if you set the show ip traffic command to level 15, the show commands and show ip commands are automatically set to privilege level 15 unless you set them individually to different levels.

To return to the default privilege for a given command, use the no privilege mode level level command global configuration command. This example shows how to set the configure command to privilege level 14 and define SecretPswd14 as the password users must enter to use level 14 commands:. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to change the default privilege level for a line:. For level , the range is from 0 to Users can override the privilege level you set using the privilege level line configuration command by logging in to the line and enabling a different privilege level.

They can lower the privilege level by using the disable command. If users know the password to a higher privilege level, they can use that password to enable the higher privilege level. You might specify a high level or privilege level for your console line to restrict line usage. To return to the default line privilege level, use the no privilege level line configuration command. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to log in to a specified privilege level and to exit to a specified privilege level:.

Each service can be tied into its own database to take advantage of other services available on that server or on the network, depending on the capabilities of the daemon. Your switch can be a network access server along with other Cisco routers and access servers.

A network access server provides connections to a single user, to a network or subnetwork, and to interconnected networks as shown in Figure The authentication facility can conduct a dialog with the user for example, after a username and password are provided, to challenge a user with several questions, such as home address, mother's maiden name, service type, and social security number. For example, a message could notify users that their passwords must be changed because of the company's password aging policy.

Network managers can use the accounting facility to track user activity for a security audit or to provide information for user billing. Accounting records include user identities, start and stop times, executed commands such as PPP , number of packets, and number of bytes. The daemon prompts for a username and password combination, but can include other items, such as the user's mother's maiden name. If the switch is configured to require authorization, authorization begins at this time.

If an ERROR response is received, the switch typically tries to use an alternative method for authenticating the user. After authentication, the user undergoes an additional authorization phase if authorization has been enabled on the switch. A method list defines the sequence and methods to be used to authenticate, to authorize, or to keep accounts on a user.

You can use method lists to designate one or more security protocols to be used, thus ensuring a backup system if the initial method fails. The software uses the first method listed to authenticate, to authorize, or to keep accounts on users; if that method does not respond, the software selects the next method in the list. This process continues until there is successful communication with a listed method or the method list is exhausted.

You can configure the switch to use a single server or AAA server groups to group existing server hosts for authentication. You can group servers to select a subset of the configured server hosts and use them for a particular service. The server group is used with a global server-host list and contains the list of IP addresses of the selected server hosts. Enter this command multiple times to create a list of preferred hosts. The software searches for hosts in the order in which you specify them.

The default is port The range is 1 to The default is 5 seconds. The range is 1 to seconds. To configure AAA authentication, you define a named list of authentication methods and then apply that list to various ports. The method list defines the types of authentication to be performed and the sequence in which they are performed; it must be applied to a specific port before any of the defined authentication methods are performed.

The only exception is the default method list which, by coincidence, is named default. The default method list is automatically applied to all ports except those that have a named method list explicitly defined. A defined method list overrides the default method list.

A method list describes the sequence and authentication methods to be queried to authenticate a user. You can designate one or more security protocols to be used for authentication, thus ensuring a backup system for authentication in case the initial method fails. The software uses the first method listed to authenticate users; if that method fails to respond, the software selects the next authentication method in the method list.

This process continues until there is successful communication with a listed authentication method or until all defined methods are exhausted. If authentication fails at any point in this cycle—meaning that the security server or local username database responds by denying the user access—the authentication process stops, and no other authentication methods are attempted.

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure login authentication:. The default method list is automatically applied to all ports. The additional methods of authentication are used only if the previous method returns an error, not if it fails. Before you can use this authentication method, you must define an enable password by using the enable password global configuration command.

Before you can use this authentication method, you must define a line password. Use the password password line configuration command. You must enter username information in the database. Use the username password global configuration command. You must enter username information in the database by using the username name password global configuration command. Enter line configuration mode, and configure the lines to which you want to apply the authentication list.

To disable AAA, use the no aaa new-model global configuration command. Note To secure the switch for HTTP access by using AAA methods, you must configure the switch with the ip http authentication aaa global configuration command. AAA authorization limits the services available to a user. When AAA authorization is enabled, the switch uses information retrieved from the user's profile, which is located either in the local user database or on the security server, to configure the user's session.

The user is granted access to a requested service only if the information in the user profile allows it. Note Authorization is bypassed for authenticated users who log in through the CLI even if authorization has been configured. The exec keyword might return user profile information such as autocommand information.

The AAA accounting feature tracks the services that users are accessing and the amount of network resources that they are consuming. Each accounting record contains accounting attribute-value AV pairs and is stored on the security server. This data can then be analyzed for network management, client billing, or auditing. This section describes how to enable and configure the RADIUS, which provides detailed accounting information and flexible administrative control over authentication and authorization processes.

Clients send authentication requests to a central RADIUS server, which contains all user authentication and network service access information. This is to help ensure that the RADIUS server remains accessible in case one of the connected stack members is removed from the switch stack. In an IP-based network with multiple vendors' access servers, dial-in users are authenticated through a RADIUS server that has been customized to work with the Kerberos security system.

See Figure The RADIUS accounting functions allow data to be sent at the start and end of services, showing the amount of resources such as time, packets, bytes, and so forth used during the session. An Internet service provider might use a freeware-based version of RADIUS access control and accounting software to meet special security and billing needs.

When a user attempts to log in and authenticate to a switch that is access controlled by a RADIUS server, these events occur:. The user is prompted to enter a username and password. REJECT—The user is either not authenticated and is prompted to re-enter the username and password, or access is denied. A standard RADIUS interface is typically used in a pulled model where the request originates from a network attached device and the response come from the queried servers.

However, some basic configuration is required for the following attributes:. Change of Authorization CoA requests, as described in RFC , are used in a push model to allow for session identification, host reauthentication, and session termination. The model is comprised of one request CoA-Request and two possible response codes:. The Disconnect Request message, which is also referred to as Packet of Disconnect POD , is supported by the switch for session termination.

Table shows the IETF attributes are supported for this feature. Table shows the possible values for the Error-Cause attribute. To use the CoA interface, a session must already exist on the switch. CoA can be used to identify a session and enforce a disconnect request. The update affects only the specified session. The CoA Request response code can be used to convey a command to the switch.

The supported commands are listed in Table For disconnect and CoA requests targeted at a particular session, the switch locates the session based on one or more of the following attributes:. For disconnect and CoA requests targeted to a particular session, any one of the following session identifiers can be used:. If more than one session identification attribute is included in the message, all the attributes must match the session or the switch returns a Disconnect- negative acknowledgement NAK or CoA-NAK with the error code "Invalid Attribute Value.

If the authorization state is changed successfully, a positive acknowledgement ACK is sent. A negative acknowledgement NAK indicates a failure to change the authorization state and can include attributes that indicate the reason for the failure. Use show commands to verify a successful CoA.

The AAA server typically generates a session reauthentication request when a host with an unknown identity or posture joins the network and is associated with a restricted access authorization profile such as a guest VLAN.

A reauthentication request allows the host to be placed in the appropriate authorization group when its credentials are known. The current session state determines the switch response to the message. If the session is currently authenticated by IEEE If the session is currently authenticated by MAC authentication bypass MAB , the switch sends an access-request to the server, passing the same identity attributes used for the initial successful authentication.

If session authentication is in progress when the switch receives the command, the switch terminates the process, and restarts the authentication sequence, starting with the method configured to be attempted first. If the session is not yet authorized, or is authorized via guest VLAN, or critical VLAN, or similar policies, the reauthentication message restarts the access control methods, beginning with the method configured to be attempted first.

The current authorization of the session is maintained until the reauthentication leads to a different authorization result. There are three types of CoA requests that can trigger session termination. A CoA Disconnect-Request terminates the session, without disabling the host port. This command causes re-initialization of the authenticator state machine for the specified host, but does not restrict that host's access to the network.

This command is useful when a host is known to be causing problems on the network, and you need to immediately block network access for the host. When a device with no supplicant, such as a printer, needs to acquire a new IP address for example, after a VLAN change , terminate the session on the host port with port-bounce temporarily disable and then re-enable the port.

This command is a standard Disconnect-Request. Because this command is session-oriented, it must be accompanied by one or more of the session identification attributes described in the "Session Identification" section. If the session is located, the switch terminates the session.

After the session has been completely removed, the switch returns a Disconnect-ACK. If the switch fails-over to a standby switch before returning a Disconnect-ACK to the client, the process is repeated on the new active switch when the request is re-sent from the client.

If the switch fails before returning a CoA-ACK to the client, the process is repeated on the new active switch when the request is re-sent from the client. If the switch fails after returning a CoA-ACK message to the client but before the operation has completed, the operation is restarted on the new active switch. Note A Disconnect-Request failure following command re-sending could be the result of either a successful session termination before change-over if the Disconnect-ACK was not sent or a session termination by other means for example, a link failure that occurred after the original command was issued and before the standby switch became active.

If the session is located, the switch disables the hosting port for a period of 10 seconds, re-enables it port-bounce , and returns a CoA-ACK. If the switch fails after returning a CoA-ACK message to the client but before the operation has completed, the operation is re-started on the new active switch.

No special handling is required for CoA Disconnect-Request messages in a switch stack. Because the bounce-port command is targeted at a session, not a port, if the session is not found, the command cannot be executed.

When the Auth Manager command handler on the stack master receives a valid bounce-port command, it checkpoints the following information before returning a CoA-ACK message:. The switch initiates a port-bounce disables the port for 10 seconds, then re-enables it. If the port-bounce is successful, the signal that triggered the port-bounce is removed from the standby stack master. If the stack master fails before the port-bounce completes, a port-bounce is initiated after stack master change-over based on the original command which is subsequently removed.

If the stack master fails before sending a CoA-ACK message, the new stack master treats the re-sent command as a new command. Because the disable-port command is targeted at a session, not a port, if the session is not found, the command cannot be executed. When the Auth Manager command handler on the stack master receives a valid disable-port command, it verifies this information before returning a CoA-ACK message:. If the port-disable operation is successful, the signal that triggered the port-disable is removed from the standby stack master.

If the stack master fails before the port-disable operation completes, the port is disabled after stack master change-over based on the original command which is subsequently removed. The software uses the first method listed to authenticate, to authorize, or to keep accounts on users. If that method does not respond, the software selects the next method in the list.

If two different host entries on the same RADIUS server are configured for the same service—for example, accounting—the second host entry configured acts as a fail-over backup to the first one. The timeout, retransmission, and encryption key values can be configured globally for all RADIUS servers, on a per-server basis, or in some combination of global and per-server settings. To apply these settings globally to all RADIUS servers communicating with the switch, use the three unique global configuration commands: radius-server timeout , radius-server retransmit , and radius-server key.

Note If you configure both global and per-server functions timeout, retransmission, and key commands on the switch, the per-server timer, retransmission, and key value commands override global timer, retransmission, and key value commands. You can configure the switch to use AAA server groups to group existing server hosts for authentication.

This procedure is required. This setting overrides the radius-server timeout global configuration command setting. If no timeout is set with the radius-server host command, the setting of the radius-server timeout command is used.

If no retransmit value is set with the radius-server host command, the setting of the radius-server retransmit global configuration command is used. Always configure the key as the last item in the radius-server host command. Leading spaces are ignored, but spaces within and at the end of the key are used.

If you use spaces in your key, do not enclose the key in quotation marks unless the quotation marks are part of the key. To configure the switch to recognize more than one host entry associated with a single IP address, enter this command as many times as necessary, making sure that each UDP port number is different.

The switch software searches for hosts in the order in which you specify them. To remove the specified RADIUS server, use the no radius-server host hostname ip-address global configuration command. This example shows how to configure one RADIUS server to be used for authentication and another to be used for accounting:.

This example shows how to configure host1 as the RADIUS server and to use the default ports for both authentication and accounting:. These settings include the IP address of the switch and the key string to be shared by both the server and the switch. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure login authentication. Use the username name password global configuration command.

You must enter username information in the database by using the username password global configuration command. You select a subset of the configured server hosts and use them for a particular service. The server group is used with a global server-host list, which lists the IP addresses of the selected server hosts. Server groups also can include multiple host entries for the same server if each entry has a unique identifier the combination of the IP address and UDP port number , allowing different ports to be individually defined as RADIUS hosts providing a specific AAA service.

If you configure two different host entries on the same RADIUS server for the same service, for example, accounting , the second configured host entry acts as a fail-over backup to the first one. You use the server group server configuration command to associate a particular server with a defined group server. You can either identify the server by its IP address or identify multiple host instances or entries by using the optional auth-port and acct-port keywords.

To remove a server group from the configuration list, use the no aaa group server radius group-name global configuration command. The second host entry acts as a fail-over backup to the first entry. When AAA authorization is enabled, the switch uses information retrieved from the user's profile, which is in the local user database or on the security server, to configure the user's session.

You can use the aaa authorization global configuration command with the radius keyword to set parameters that restrict a user's network access to privileged EXEC mode. The aaa authorization exec radius local command sets these authorization parameters:. The default is 3; the range 1 to The default is 5 seconds; the range is 1 to Specify the number of minutes a RADIUS server, which is not responding to authentication requests, to be skipped, thus avoiding the wait for the request to timeout before trying the next configured server.

The default is 0; the range is 1 to minutes. To return to the default setting for the retransmit, timeout, and deadtime, use the no forms of these commands. Vendor-specific attributes VSAs allow vendors to support their own extended attributes not suitable for general use. Cisco's vendor-ID is 9, and the supported option has vendor-type 1, which is named cisco-avpair. The value is a string with this format:. Protocol is a value of the Cisco protocol attribute for a particular type of authorization.

This example shows how to provide a user logging in from a switch with immediate access to privileged EXEC commands:. If you enter this command without keywords, both accounting and authentication vendor-specific attributes are used. To disable the key, use the no radius-server key global configuration command. This example shows how to specify a vendor-proprietary RADIUS host and to use a secret key of rad between the switch and the server:.

Configure the switch as an authentication, authorization, and accounting AAA server to facilitate interaction with an external policy server. Optional Configure the switch to ignore a CoA request to temporarily disable the port hosting a session.

The purpose of temporarily disabling the port is to trigger a DHCP renegotiation from the host when a VLAN change occurs and there is no supplicant on the endpoint to detect the change. Optional Configure the switch to ignore a nonstandard command requesting that the port hosting a session be administratively shut down. Shutting down the port results in termination of the session. To disable the AAA server functionality on the switch, use the no aaa server radius dynamic authorization global configuration command.

This section describes how to enable and configure the Kerberos security system, which authenticates requests for network resources by using a trusted third party. To use this feature, the cryptographic that is, supports encryption versions of the switch software must be installed on your switch. You must obtain authorization to use this feature and to download the cryptographic software files from Cisco.

For more information, see the release notes for this release. Kerberos is a secret-key network authentication protocol, which was developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT. It uses the Data Encryption Standard DES cryptographic algorithm for encryption and authentication and authenticates requests for network resources.

Kerberos uses the concept of a trusted third party to perform secure verification of users and services. This trusted third party is called the key distribution center KDC. Kerberos verifies that users are who they claim to be and the network services that they use are what the services claim to be. To do this, a KDC or trusted Kerberos server issues tickets to users. These tickets, which have a limited lifespan, are stored in user credential caches. The Kerberos server uses the tickets instead of usernames and passwords to authenticate users and network services.

Note A Kerberos server can be a Catalyst switch that is configured as a network security server and that can authenticate users by using the Kerberos protocol. The Kerberos credential scheme uses a process called single logon. This process authenticates a user once and then allows secure authentication without encrypting another password wherever that user credential is accepted.

This software release supports Kerberos 5, which allows organizations that are already using Kerberos 5 to use the same Kerberos authentication database on the KDC that they are already using on their other network hosts such as UNIX servers and PCs. Table lists the common Kerberos-related terms and definitions:. A process by which a user or service identifies itself to another service. For example, a client can authenticate to a switch or a switch can authenticate to another switch.

A means by which the switch identifies what privileges the user has in a network or on the switch and what actions the user can perform. A general term that refers to authentication tickets, such as TGTs 1 and service credentials. Kerberos credentials verify the identity of a user or service. If a network service decides to trust the Kerberos server that issued a ticket, it can be used in place of re-entering a username and password. Credentials have a default lifespan of eight hours.

An authorization level label for Kerberos principals. The Kerberos instance can be used to specify the authorization level for the user if authentication is successful. The server of each network service might implement and enforce the authorization mappings of Kerberos instances but is not required to do so. Note The Kerberos principal and instance names must be in all lowercase characters. Note The Kerberos realm name must be in all uppercase characters.

Key distribution center that consists of a Kerberos server and database program that is running on a network host. A term that describes applications and services that have been modified to support the Kerberos credential infrastructure. A domain consisting of users, hosts, and network services that are registered to a Kerberos server. The Kerberos server is trusted to verify the identity of a user or network service to another user or network service. A daemon that is running on a network host.

Users and network services register their identity with the Kerberos server. Network services query the Kerberos server to authenticate to other network services. A password that a network service shares with the KDC. Also known as a Kerberos identity, this is who you are or what a service is according to the Kerberos server.

Note The Kerberos principal name must be in all lowercase characters. A credential for a network service. The password is also shared with the user TGT. Ticket granting ticket that is a credential that the KDC issues to authenticated users. A Kerberos server can be a Catalyst switch that is configured as a network security server and that can authenticate remote users by using the Kerberos protocol. Although you can customize Kerberos in a number of ways, remote users attempting to access network services must pass through three layers of security before they can access network services.

To authenticate to network services by using a Catalyst switch as a Kerberos server, remote users must follow these steps:. Authenticating to a Boundary Switch. Authenticating to Network Services. This section describes the first layer of security through which a remote user must pass. The user must first authenticate to the boundary switch. This process then occurs:. The user opens an un-Kerberized Telnet connection to the boundary switch. The switch prompts the user for a username and password.

The switch attempts to decrypt the TGT by using the password that the user entered. A remote user who initiates a un-Kerberized Telnet session and authenticates to a boundary switch is inside the firewall, but the user must still authenticate directly to the KDC before getting access to the network services.

The user must authenticate to the KDC because the TGT that the KDC issues is stored on the switch and cannot be used for additional authentication until the user logs on to the switch. This section describes the second layer of security through which a remote user must pass. This section describes the third layer of security through which a remote user must pass. The user with a TGT must now authenticate to the network services in a Kerberos realm. So that remote users can authenticate to network services, you must configure the hosts and the KDC in the Kerberos realm to communicate and mutually authenticate users and network services.

To do this, you must identify them to each other. You also create entries for the users in the KDC database. When you add or create entries for the hosts and users, follow these guidelines:. For information about the device manager, see the switch online help. This guide does not describe system messages you might encounter or how to install your switch. For more information, see the appropriate system message guide and hardware installation guide.

For documentation updates, see the release notes for this release. This publication uses these conventions to convey instructions and information:. Notes, cautions, and timesavers use these conventions and symbols:. Note Means reader take note. Notes contain helpful suggestions or references to materials not contained in this manual. These documents provide complete information about the switch and are available from this Cisco. Note Before installing, configuring, or upgrading the switch, see these documents:.

See these documents for other information about the switch:. SFP compatibility matrix documents are available from this Cisco. Skip to content Skip to search Skip to footer. Book Contents Book Contents. Find Matches in This Book. Log in to Save Content. PDF - Complete Book Updated: July 23, Chapter: Preface.

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